AVS2013 Session BI+AI+AS+BA+IA+NL+NS+SP-WeA: Characterization of Biointerfaces
Wednesday, October 30, 2013 2:00 PM in Room 201 B
BI+AI+AS+BA+IA+NL+NS+SP-WeA-1 Barrier Properties of the Three Layers of the Stratum Corneum to Metal Ions Analyzed by TOF-SIMS
Itsuko Ishizaki (ULVAC-PHI, Inc., Japan); John Hammond (Physical Electronics Inc.); Akiko Kubo, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Keisuke Nagao (Keio University, Japan); Yoshiharu Ohashi (ULVAC-PHI, Inc., Japan); Masayuki Amagai, Akiharu Kubo (Keio University, Japan)
The stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost barrier protecting the mammalian body from desiccation and foreign insults. Congenital SC barrier insufficiencies, i.e., filaggrin deficiency, are hypothesized to predispose patients to atopic diseases. The insoluble nature of the SC has hampered in-depth-analysis of its barrier function by conventional cell biological methods. Here, we applied time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging technology to analyze the SC in skin sections of wild type and filaggrin knockout mice.
TOF-SIMS enabled the visualization of the distribution of natural substances and the infiltration of externally applied molecules directly without any staining procedure. The distribution of potassium (K) and arginine revealed that the SC consists of three sharply demarcated layers. K was concentrated in the upper layer, while arginine, a major component of the filaggrin-derived natural moisturizing factors, was specifically concentrated in the middle layer and markedly decreased in the filaggrin knockout SC. When skin was soaked in water, K of the upper layer disappeared. When the mice tails were soaked in solutions of K or hexavalent chromium before cross-sectioning, the TOF-SIMS line scan data indicates that the upper layer of the SC allowed the influx of these ions, suggesting that this layer acts like a “sponge” allowing the passive influx and efflux of exogenous ions. The middle layer blocked the influx of K and hexavalent chromium ions, but failed to block the influx of trivalent chromium ions, which was blocked at the lower layer. Therefore the middle and lower layers have distinct barrier properties depending on each metal. Filaggrin deficiency resulted in the abrogation of the lower layer barrier, allowing trivalent chromium to permeate through the SC to viable epidermal layers. These results, obtained by TOF-SIMS analyses, reveal that the SC consists of three layers of distinct functional properties and demonstrate the loss of barrier properties for particular metal ions in filaggrin deficient SC samples.
BI+AI+AS+BA+IA+NL+NS+SP-WeA-2 Imaging Hydrated Schewanella p. Biofilm in a Microfluidic Reactor by ToF-SIMS
Xiao-Ying Yu, Matthew Marshall, Bingwen Liu, Zihua Zhu, Li Yang, Eric Hill, Sara Belchik (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
We recently developed a microfluidic interface that enables direct probing of liquid surface in vacuum using ToF-SIMS and SEM. The device contains a 100 nm thick silicon nitride (SiN) membrane as the detection area (1.5 ´ 1.5 mm2) and the microchannels fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft lithography. The unique aspect of our approach is that the detection window is an aperture of 2-3 m m diameter, which allows direct detection of the liquid surface and use surface tension to hold the liquid within the aperture. Its application in ToF-SIMS as an analytical tool was evaluated. In this paper, we present new results of using the microfluidic flow cell to grow Schewanella p. biofilm and characterize the biofilm subsequently using ToF-SIMS in the hydrated environment. Depth profiling was used to drill through the SiN membrane and the biofilm grown on the substrate. A controlled media sample was used to compare with the wet biofilm sample. In addition, dry samples deposited on clean silicon wafer were studied to show the difference between wet and dry samples. Multivariate statistical analysis including Principle Component Analysis was used to investigate observations. Our results indicate that imaging biofilm in the hydrated environment using ToF-SIMS is possible using the unique microfluidic device for the first time. Moreover, characteristic biofilm fragments were observed in the wet sample than in dry sample, illustrating the advantage of imaging biofilm in the hydrated state.
BI+AI+AS+BA+IA+NL+NS+SP-WeA-3 High-resolution Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Distinct Lipid Species in the Plasma Membranes of Mammalian Cells
Mary Kraft (University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign)
The plasma membrane is the selectively permeable lipid bilayer that separates every cell from its surroundings. In mammalian cells, the plasma membrane contains domains of differing protein composition. Growing evidence suggests that each different lipid species and cholesterol are also organized into compositionally and functionally domains within the plasma membrane. Domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, which are often referred to as lipid rafts, are hypothesized to be present in the plasma membrane and influence its functions. Despite this potential importance, the organizations of cholesterol and sphingolipids in cell membranes are poorly understood. Until recently, the distributions of most lipid species could not be directly imaged without the use of fluorophore labels, which may alter the distributions of the lipid molecules that they label. We have combined high-resolution SIMS, which is performed with a Cameca NanoSIMS 50, with metabolic stable isotope labeling in order to visualize the organizations of rare isotope-labeled lipids in the plasma membrane by mapping their distinctive isotope enrichments. Here, the details of this approach and its application to imaging the distributions of metabolically incorporated 15N-sphingolipids and 18O-cholesterol in the plasma membranes of fibroblast cells will be presented. Use of this approach to evaluate hypotheses concerning the mechanisms that regulate lipid organization within the plasma membrane will also be discussed.
BI+AI+AS+BA+IA+NL+NS+SP-WeA-7 Analysis of Breast Cancer Tumors with ToF-SIMS
Lara Gamble, Michael Robinson (University of Washington); Fionnuala Morrish, David Hockenbery (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)
Tumor metabolism plays a large role in cancer onset and progression, and its causes and effects are under intense scrutiny. Recently, the lipid metabolism in tumors has been looked at as a factor in tumor type and treatment. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is well suited for analysis of the lipid distribution in tumors. In this study, frozen breast cancer tissue specimens from patients were cut using a cryomicrotome at a thickness of 4μm and deposited on silicon wafers. Serial tissue slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and were used to determine from which structures the various chemical signatures originated. SIMS tissue sample data were acquired on an IONTOF TOF.SIMS V using Bi3+ in both high mass and high spatial resolution modes on both ER+ and ER- human breast tumor tissue samples. Mass fragments spectra from multiple spots and tissue slices for the ER+ and ER- tissue samples can be separated from one another using PCA within a 95% confidence interval. Key differences between tissue types are abundance of cholesterol and triacylglycerides/diacylglycerides (TAGs/DAGs). Imaging ToF-SIMS of theses samples show variances for different fatty acids (saturated versus unsaturated) that correlate with model studies using similar cancer cell types.
BI+AI+AS+BA+IA+NL+NS+SP-WeA-8 Tools For TOF-SIMS Image Analysis
Daniel Graham, Lara Gamble, David Castner (University of Washington)
The use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) for imaging has increased in recent years. This is due to the improvements in spatial resolution and ion yields from modern primary ion sources. These improvements have made ToF-SIMS attractive for cell and tissue imaging, especially due to the fact that ToF-SIMS can detect and identify a wide range of membrane lipids and other cellular components, and can potentially image these in both 2D and 3D. Characterization of tissues and cells by ToF-SIMS often requires advanced data collection and analysis methodologies including the use of stage rastering for large area analysis and 3D depth profiling. It is also often of interested to localize specific areas within a cell or tissue and carry out region of interest (ROI) analysis. Finally, ToF-SIMS image analysis presents challenges due to the shear size of the data sets. In order to deal with these large, complex data sets, we have created a set of Matlab toolboxes for multivariate analysis of both images and spectra. This talk will highlight new tools in the NBtoolbox that enable the user to process stage raster images, overlay images, and extract ROI images based off of image masks created from any imported image.
For example, the stage raster tools enable the user to import and run PCA on an entire stage raster image, or to dice the stage raster into separate image tiles that can then be analyzed individually. The ROI generation tools enable the user to import any image to be used as a ROI mask. Examples will be shown using florescent images from confocal microscopy as masks to extract ROI from ToF-SIMS images of mouse muscle tissue. Tools are also included for image alignment, and image cropping. All data processed with these tools can be analyzed using PCA, MAF or MCR.
BI+AI+AS+BA+IA+NL+NS+SP-WeA-9 How Hydration Affects Mechanical Anisotropy, Nano-Topography and Fibril Organization of Osteonal Lamellae
Anna Faingold, Sidney Cohen (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel); Ron Shahar (Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem); Stephen Weiner, Daniel Wagner (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel)
Water serves a central role in physiological systems. Even bone, a relatively "dry" component, has high water content: cortical (also known as compact) bone contains about 20% water by volume. The water content varies with age, and influences the structural and mechanical properties of the bone, from the level of mineralized fibrils up to osteonal lamellae. Many studies on mechanical properties of bone are performed on bone which has been dehydrated to some degree, whereas the relevant physiological state is wet. In this work, atomic force microscopy, nanoindentation, and microindentation have been applied to wet and dry bone samples in order to investigate the influence of hydration at different hierarchical levels; the mineralized fibril level (~100nm), the lamellar level (~6µm); and the osteon level (up to ~30µm). Measurements were made both in directions parallel and perpendicular to the osteonal axis by cutting appropriate slices from a metacarpal bone of a 5 year old male horse. "Dry" samples were obtained by allowing the polished sample to stand under ambient conditions for 24 hours. "Wet" samples were measured under deionized water, or PBS solution in which they were incubated between 1 - 18 hours prior to measurement. We note that under these conditions, the wet samples contained 12% water whereas dry samples contained 9% water. Nonetheless, significant differences between the two states were observed: (1) Dry samples were both stiffer and harder than the wet samples in both directions studied, and at all length scales. (2) The anisotropy ratio, ratio of modulus or hardness along vs. perpendicular to the osteonal axis, was larger in the dry samples than for the wet ones. (3) These mechanical changes are accompanied by marked variation in the sample topography as observed by atomic force microscopy. These results will be presented in the context of related work. A model we developed based on differences in the fibril orientation between dry and wet states provides a good rationale for the observed behavior.
BI+AI+AS+BA+IA+NL+NS+SP-WeA-10 AFM of Supported Lipid Bilayers: From Critical Point Behaviour to Actin Polymerization
George Heath, Simon Connell, Steve Evans (University of Leeds, UK)
In this study we create supported lipid model membranes which display phase separation into liquid-ordered and liquid disordered domains and use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe critical phenomena and protein interactions with the aid of stable and precise temperature control. The regions of criticality were determined by accurately measuring and calculating phase diagrams for the 2 phase L d –L o region, and tracking how it moves with temperature, then increasing the sampling density around the estimated critical regions. Compositional fluctuations were observed above the critical temperature (T c ) and characterized using a spatial correlation function. From this analysis, the phase transition was found to be most closely described by the 2D Ising model, showing it is a critical transition. The region of critically fluctuating 10–100 nm nanodomains has been found to extend a considerable distance above T c to temperatures within the biological range, and seem to be an ideal candidate for the actual structure of lipid rafts in cell membranes. Although evidence for this idea has recently emerged, this is the first direct evidence for nanoscale domains in the critical region.
Ponticulin is a 17KDa integral membrane protein with multiple membrane spanning beta strands and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid anchor at its C-terminus. Ponticulin has been shown to be the major high affinity link between the plasma membrane and the cortial actin network in D. discoideum (Wuestehube and luna, 1987; Chia et al., 1991). This protien in thought to reside in cholesterol-rich lipid microdomains (‘lipid rafts’) with the transmembrane domain apparently lying outside the lipid raft with the raft localization being dependant upon the GPI anchor at the C-terminus of the protein. We test the hypothesis of localization and show for the first signs of GPI-anchored membranes proteins preferentially locating to boundaries between the lo and ld phase. This may provide a potential mechanism by which the cytoskeleton can influence lipid organization.
Cationic lipids have been previously shown to adsorb actin from a non polymerizing solution, induce its polymerization, and form a 2D network of actin filaments, in conditions that forbid bulk polymerization. We show this phenomenon on supported lipid bilayers using high resolution AFM and QCM-D, investigating various factors such pH, charge concentration and lipid mobility which affect the actin structures formed. We then go on to mathematically model this process to show 2 different polymerization mechanisms depending on the lipid diffusion.
BI+AI+AS+BA+IA+NL+NS+SP-WeA-11 Investigating Reversible Dye Adsorption on TiO2: A QCM-D Study
Hannah Wayment-Steele, Lewis Johnson (Pomona College); Matthew Dixon (Biolin Scientific); Malkiat Johal (Pomona College)
Understanding the kinetics of dye adsorption on semiconductors is crucial for designing dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with enhanced efficiency. Harms et al. (2012) have recently demonstrated the applications of QCM-D to show in-situ dye adsorption on flat TiO2 surfaces. QCM-D provides adsorption measurements in real time and therefore determination of the kinetics of the process. In this work, we examine reversible, non-covalent binding of N3, a commercial RuBipy dye, using the native oxide layer of a titanium sensor to simulate the TiO2 substrate of a DSSC. To isolate the weak binding mode, we deactivated the carboxylate groups of N3 by forming methyl esters, thus disabling chelation to TiO2. Improved understanding of the weak binding mode provides insight into dye aggregation and the relative contributions of chelation versus non-covalent processes.
BI+AI+AS+BA+IA+NL+NS+SP-WeA-12 Combined Raman Systems for Biological Imaging and Analysis
Andrew King (Renishaw Inc); Tim Prusnick (Renishaw Inc.); Mark Canales (Renishaw Inc)
Raman microscopy has become a routine tool for many materials, but the need for this molecular imaging and analysis technique in biological research has become essential. The ability probe the chemical and molecular structure of biological materials is obtained directly without the need for any dyes or markers. These systems can be utilised to generate chemical images of cells, tissue, bone and bio-compatible materials with very high spatial resolution. It has been employed for cancer diagnosis, stem cell differentiation, skin treatments, protein structure analysis, bio-diagnostics, bacterial identification and green energy.
This Raman instrumentation can also be combined with environmental chambers, scanning probe techniques, scanning electron microscopes and in-vivo probes; to provide in-situ and co-localised measurements. This talk will provide an introduction to Raman microscopy with biological materials; the instrumentation required for these techniques; and, will highlight some applications where Raman microscopy is making the biggest impact with biological materials.